Social Development Strategy


September 2004

A. Introduction 2

A.1. The National Context 2
A.2. The Local Context 3
A.3. The Greater Kliptown Development Programme 4
A.4. The Greater Kliptown Social Development Programme 5
B. Understanding the Greater Kliptown Social Development Needs (The Process) 9
B.1. The Research Problem 9
B.2. Research Design 10
B.3. The Sample 10
B.4. Data Collection Instruments 10
B.5. Data Capturing 11
B.6. Data Analysis 11
C. Social Development Needs For Greater Kliptown - Key Findings 11
C.1. Demographics 11
C.1.1. Gender and age 11
C.1.2. Marital Status 11
C.1.3. Family structure 12
C.2. Services 12
C.2.1. Water 12
C.2.2. Sanitation 12
C.2.3. Energy 12
C.2.4. Education 12
C.2.5. Employment 12
C.2.6. Social Grants 13
C.2.7. Health 13
C.3. Challenges Facing Women 13
C.4. Challenges Facing Men 15
C.5. Challenges Facing The Youth 16
C.6. Challenges facing the Aged 17
C.7. Challenges Facing Young Children 18
D. The Social Development Strategy 19
D.1. The Strategic Objectives 19
D.2. Envisaged Outcomes - Social Change 20
D.3. The Strategic Principles 25
D.3.1. Social Marketing 25
D.3.2. Communication for Behavioural Impact (COMBI) 29
D.3.3. Awareness Building and Education 32
D.3.4. Training, Skills Development and Capacity Building 33
D.3.5. Targeted Initiatives 34
D.3.6. Monitoring and Evaluation 37
D.3.7. Sustainability 42
E. The Social Development Programmes 44
E.1. The HIV/AIDS Intervention 45
E.2. Poverty Alleviation Intervention 45
E.3. The Abuse and Violence Intervention 47
E.4. Sports & Recreation Programme 47
E.5. The Social Services Programme 48
E.6. The Health Services Programme 49
F. The Programme Implementation Model 50
F.1. The Mobilisation Phase - Laying the Foundation 51
F.2. Implementation Phase - Community Upliftment 52
F.3. Community Governance 53
F.4. Medium Term Institutional Arrangements 54
a) The Social Development Steering Committee 56
b) The Programme Steering Committee 56
c) Programme Management 57
d) Functional Teams 59
e) Other Issues 59
F.5. Post Development institutional Arrangements 59
G. Conclusion 60



A. Introduction

Social development refers to the process of planned change designed to improve the well being of citizens, occurring in conjunction with dynamic processes of economic and physical development 1. Essentially social development draws on the desire to improve social characteristics such as equity, participation, living standards and material well - being, enjoyment of citizenship entitlements, cultural and personal expressions, and other attributes that go to make up quality of life. Thus, it is a process.
For the people of Kliptown, social development takes on a different dimension as it is informed by very specific needs of the community that are directly related to the historical and heritage context of the area,

A.1. The National Context
As South Africa nears the end of its second term of democracy, serious questions are being asked about how the democratic transition has impacted on the lives of the majority of people who were disadvantaged by the racially exclusive system of apartheid. These questions are linked to the recognition and realisation that democracies can only thrive to the extent that the socio-economic well being of its citizens is addressed. Within this framework, the assertion is that democratic transformation that is not accompanied by economic transformation will create societies that remain deeply divided and struggle to engage in meaningful growth and development.
Economic transformation has thus been high on South Africa's development agenda. The high unemployment figures (20%) and increasing numbers of people living below the poverty datum line (predominantly previously disadvantaged individuals) suggest that efforts to date have not been entirely successful. Government's review of its second term of government have highlighted the following challenges:
  • Continued weakness of government to implement programmes, particularly the local sphere
  • The unrelenting advance of HIV/AIDS
  • High levels of unemployment
  • Growing poverty
  • Dealing with the reality and perceptions of corruption
  • Low levels of public participation in government
  • Slow economic growth, low levels of investment and continued poor access to capital by black people

This is not to suggest, that no gains have been made. Rather, the issue is how to accelerate the pace of socio-economic transformation. In his state of the nation address (2004), President Thabo Mbeki pronounced, "the purpose that will drive this government shall be the expansion of the frontiers of human fulfilment..." We must therefore move vigorously to implement all programmes on which we have agreed to ensure that we extricate all our people from the social conditions that spell loss of human dignity. These include the urban renewal and rural development programmes, the expanded public works programme, the expansion of micro-credit and small enterprises, the provision of adult basic education and modern skills, and the development of the social and economic infrastructure.'

Thus, the notion socio-economic development and sustainable community development is very high on the agenda of government and South Africa as whole.

A.2. The Local Context
It is within the national context that local socio-economy is thus so critical. The policy and regulatory framework requires municipalities to develop an integrated develop plan that is meant to address the key developmental challenges of the community. Key components of these plans focus on local economic and social development. The admission that this process has not been entirely successful to date relates both to capacity of municipalities to develop and implement programmes as well as the significance and scale of the development challenges.

The city of Johannesburg has identified certain strategic challenges from a socio economic perspective:

  • Ensuring that the City economy grows,
  • Promoting meaningful urban (and rural) renewal
  • Managing the negative impacts that make development unsustainable (City Medium Term Budget 2003/04 to 2005/06).

In order to address these challenges, the city has established a range of mechanisms. The city has dedicated team that is focused on economic development initiatives (J2030) and a social development department who in partnership with regions deliver social development services to Joburg's community.

In interpreting the strategic role of social development, the city has adopted a comprehensive approach that is aligned to the national thrust of the country but is customised to the specific challenges of Joburg as a city.

Poverty alleviation and human development are the strategic priorities identified by the city in terms of its social development focus. In this regard, the city delivers an array of social, sporting, recreational, library and information services, through its regional structures. In order to ensure that service delivery is focused and that the city can report on its performance, the city produces an annual service delivery plan with tangible service delivery targets.

The medium- and long-term results are aimed at minimising poverty, creating stable and empowered communities, creating equitable access to services and facilities and enhancing quality of life through sports and recreation.

The focus of the social development business plan for the two years (2004/05 and 2005/06) focuses on addressing pertinent issues affecting the social development department by:

  • Enhancing access to services
  • Optimally utilising facilities for all citizens, particularly disadvantaged communities
  • Addressing backlogs both in terms of maintenance and development of new facilities
  • Facilitating and creating programmes and projects that meaningfully impact on people's lives
  • Having a more clearly-defined human development strategy
  • Addressing the challenges of HIV/AIDS
  • Effective inter-governmental relations and broader partnerships in respect of programme implementation and coordination

In addition to this, the city has established the Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA) as a focused mechanism to implement projects relating to urban renewal and sustainable community development. One such project is the Greater Kliptown Development Project. In essence, it is an urban renewal project that seeks to address precisely the issues referred to by the president.

A.3. The Greater Kliptown Development Programme
Greater Kliptown area originally formed a primarily residential apartheid buffer between Soweto to the west and Johannesburg to the east. It is located between the residential areas of Eldorado Park, Pimville, Dlamini and Klipspruit West.

The Kliptown area has been characterised by systematic disinvestments in the area, resulting in increase unemployment and lower levels of disposable house-holds income. This resulted further that retail and other concerns, which formed the main economic activity in eth area, relocated to the periphery of Kliptown, increasing the economic vulnerability of the area. Currently, Kliptown is undergoing major infrastructure, environmental and economic redevelopments to transform it into a significant destination and heritage site, as well a prosperous and desirous residential and commercial area.

At the heart of Greater Kliptown lies Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication (formerly Freedom Square) on which the historic Congress of the People was held on June 26th, 1955. Associated with Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication on its southern border is the Kliptown commercial centre primarily located on Union Street made up of medium and small commercial enterprises as well as a considerable amount of informal or semi-formal trading.

The area of Greater Kliptown is traversed by an important commuter rail-line connecting parts of Soweto to central Johannesburg, with the heavily utilized Kliptown Station close to the centre of the broader area. Southeast of the station is an informal taxi rank.

The area comprises a mix of formal and informal housing, with informal housing estimated to comprise 85% of all housing units in the area. While informal settlements vary in size, housing densities are high (though varied) and services are limited or non-existent. In addition, homes have been built in hazardous situations, for example, within the flood plane and title is insecure. In addition, the supply of developable, vacant land within Greater Kliptown is limited, although the bulk is publicly owned.

The Klipspruit River and its flood plan, which forms the western boundary of Greater Kliptown, is a key component of the area. It presents a hazard due to flooding and the high level of pollution of the river, but also opportunities as a significant and major recreational space for Kliptown and the City as a whole.

The vision of the Greater Kliptown Development Programme is "The sustainable and integrated development of greater Kliptown and Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication as a prosperous, desirable, well-managed residential and commercial area and a major national and international heritage site". To achieve the Project Goal for the Kliptown area in an integrated and sustainable manner, the Project comprises 7 key objectives. These are outlined below:

  • Maximising the recreational public open space system along the Klipspruit
  • Maximising economic growth and empowerment
  • Maximising the heritage, tourism and educational significance and importance of Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication
  • Creating an integrated, safe, secure and efficient transport system
  • Creating sustainable neighbourhoods providing homes in safe, secure, and healthy environments for a mix of income groups
  • Maximising human potential through pro-active social development programmes
  • Providing effective and efficient infrastructure and service delivery

A.4. The Greater Kliptown Social Development Programme
The human potential can be maximised through the participation and engagement of Greater Kliptown communities in re-development process. Secondly, through the development and implementation of community environmental awareness programmes, thirdly the development and implementation of women and youth development programmes, and lastly by the development and implementation of adult continuing education programmes. The goal of the social development programme is the improvement of living conditions and quality of the community. The rationale behind the initiation of a social development programme is underlined by the following key factors:

  • Social welfare will bring about sustainable improvements in the well being of individuals, families and communities.
  • Social welfare is intrinsically linked to other social service systems through which people's needs are met, and through which people strive to achieve their aspirations. Social welfare services and programmes are therefore part of a range of mechanisms to achieve social development, such as health, nutrition, education, housing, employment, recreation, rural and urban development and land reform.
  • The welfare of the population will not automatically be enhanced by economic growth. Economic development has to be accompanied by the equitable allocation and distribution of resources if it is to support social development. Social development and economic development are therefore interdependent and mutually reinforcing.

Among other things the key initiatives will have to be linked to the following thematic areas:

  • Engaging the community in redevelopment: The focus and envisaged result with engaging the community is to increase community participation during development. Participation of the community is key for ownership of the projects and for sustainability purposes.
  • Community environmental awareness: To ensure a decrease in environmental degradation of the area as environmental degradation has a negative impact on the quality of life
  • Women Development: For economic empowerment - every citizen has a right to participate and benefit from national, provincial or local economic development. However, for most women, this right is denied because of their lack of economic self-reliance, access to employment and appropriate working conditions, and control over economic resources -- land, capital and technology. In the context of the Kliptown region, intervention in this case would entail:
    • The need for an integrated approach towards women's economic development
    • Increased access to educational and training opportunities, and encouragement of positive socialization to promote self-development and enable full utilization of opportunities
    • Improved access to credit and finance
    • Improving access to management and marketing skills and appropriate technology
    • Building and strengthening networks among female entrepreneurs, non-governmental organizations, relevant governmental organizations, regional and international organization
    • Increased cooperation across the different sectors.
  • Youth Development: Youth development can be defined as "the ongoing growth process in which all youth are engaged in attempting to meet their basic personal and social needs to be safe, feel cared for, be valued, be useful, and be spiritually grounded or to build skills and competencies that allows them to function and contribute in their daily lives."

Alternatively youth development can be defined as "a process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through a coordinated, progressive series of activities and experiences which help them to become socially, morally, emotionally, physically, and cognitively competent. Positive youth development addresses the broader developmental needs of youth, in contrast to deficit-based models, which focus solely on youth problems". For the Kliptown area, critical outcomes for the youth development programme will include among others:

  • A Sense of Safety and Structure: Being provided with adequate food, clothing, shelter, and security including protection from hurt, injury or loss.
  • Improved self-worth and self-esteem: The ability to contribute, and to perceive one's contribution as being meaningful within the community.
  • Feeling of Mastery and Future: The awareness of one's progress in life including the ability to project progress in future.
  • Belonging and Membership: Being a participating member of the community
  • Perception of Responsibility and Autonomy: Accountability for one's conduct and obligations and independent and control over one's life.
  • A Sense of Self-Awareness and Spirituality: Connectedness to principles surrounding family, cultural groups, communities and higher deities.
  • Physical Health: To act in ways that best ensure current and future physical health, for self and for others within the community.
  • Mental Health: To respond affirmatively and to cope with positive and adverse situations, to reflect one's emotions and surroundings and to engage in leisure activities.
  • Intellectual Health: To learn in school and in other settings, to gain the basic knowledge needed to use critical thinking, creative problem solving, expressive skills and the ability to conduct independent studies.
  • Employability: To gain the functional and organisational skills necessary for employment, including an understanding of careers and options and the steps necessary to reach goals.
  • Civic and Social Involvement: To work collaboratively with others for the larger good and to sustain relationships.
  • Cultural Competence: To respect and affirmatively respond to differences among groups and individuals of various backgrounds, interests and traditions.

Adult Education and Support: To improve the lives of those living within the Kliptown community. Different definitions have been proposed over the years. The broadest and most frequently cited definition was developed by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Social, Cultural Organization) and it states:
"Adult Education is the entire body of organized educational processes, whatever the content, level and method, whether formal or otherwise, whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship, whereby persons regarded as adult by the society to which they belong develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, improve their technical or professional qualifications or turn them in a new direction and bring about changes in their attitudes or behaviour in the twofold perspective of full personal development and participation in balanced and independent social, economic and cultural development..."

For the Kliptown region, an adult education programme would be aimed at providing the following:

  • Liberal (Arts) Adult Education: To develop, stimulate, and discipline the mind through the study of principles and absolutes
  • Progressive Adult Education: To provide individuals with relevant problem-solving skills that relate to their lives and provide practical knowledge
  • Behavioural Adult Education: To promote behavioural change and skill development
  • Humanistic Adult Education: To enhance personal growth and development and to allow the learner to be involved in knowledge construction and 'meaning making'
  • Radical Adult Education: To use education as a means to bring about fundamental social, cultural, political, and economic change. The purpose of education is to raise awareness of issues of social justice, and to empower individuals to fight for change

Health Issues: To engage in projects that contributes to improved health of communities in the Kliptown region. The concept of health as used in this particular context is one that traverses the major components of social interactions within the Kliptown region. It does not relate solely to the physical well being of individuals, but goes beyond this to incorporate the well being of the community as a whole. In this instance, the term health takes on a new meaning that implies a holistic appreciation of the subtle interconnectedness between the diverse elements of public life i.e. government, economy and social relations.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines health as being "the extent to which an individual or group is able, on the one hand, to develop aspirations and satisfy needs, and on the other hand, to change or cope with the environment. Health is seen as a resource for everyday live, not the objective of living, as it is seen as a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as a physical capacity". In the Kliptown context this could imply:

  • A clean and safe environment - reduction of health risks
  • A stable and sustainable ecosystem
  • The meeting of basic needs for the whole community
  • Access to a wide variety of experiences and resources with the possibility of multiple interaction and communication points
  • An optimum level of appropriate public health and sick care services available to all - increase in spending on health care
  • High health status (both high positive health status and low disease status)

B. Understanding the Greater Kliptown Social Development Needs - The Process

The methodology utilised for needs assessment was empirical research that conformed to the standard logic. This logic is referred to as the ProDec Framework. The ProDec Framework is based on the premise that needs assessments are conducted to construct an argument or present a point of view that is supported by evidence and scientific reasoning.

The needs assessment required a multi-faceted framework, encapsulating both the specific and broader research questions. Specific research questions relate directly to the needs to be identified to inform programming areas for the social development project. Whilst the broader research question reflects on the social development strategy to ensure that there is a contribution to the overall quality of life of beneficiaries within the study area.

B.1. The Research Problem
For purposes of this project, the needs assessment process attempted to collect empirical evidence that would clearly respond to the following key questions:

  • What are the critical social development needs of the people of Kliptown?
  • What are the priority needs that the community is lacking?
  • What are some of the key issues that have shaped the social development terrain within Kliptown?

The hypothesis was that there is a link between the prevalent and historical context that is linked to the lack of development of people from a social development perspective. Thus there is always a need to develop specific programmes and initiatives that will uplift the community.

B.2. Research Design
Survey research was used for the purposes of the needs assessment. The overall methodology used for this study was a fusion of both quantitative and qualitative methods. There is a growing consensus in the literature about the necessity of complementing quantitative data with insights about the contexts and insiders' perspectives mainly derived through qualitative research. There are various ways in which the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry enhances the quality of the research conducted.

One of the most critical advantages of mixing quantitative and qualitative methods relates to triangulation. Triangulation refers to "data collected at different places, sources, times, level of analysis, or perspectives, data that might be quantitative, or might involve intensive interviews or thick historical description" (King, Keohane, and Verba, 1994).

B.3. The Sample
The sample for the research study was drawn from the Greater Kliptown Development Study Area. The sampling design utilised for the needs assessment was probability sampling - the main purpose of using probability sampling was to elect a set of elements from the study population in such a way that the descriptions of the elements detailed in the survey schedules accurately portray the parameters of the total population from which these elements are selected. The probability sampling method applied allowed the team to estimate the accuracy of the errors or deviations in the data collected.

The criteria detailed above resulted in the selection of approximately 5% of the total estimated population of the study area were included in the study.

B.4. Data Collection Instruments
The team identified the need for a collection of both primary and secondary data to assist in conducting the research. Several techniques were utilised in obtaining key secondary information about the social development needs of the Kliptown community. The following are some of the techniques that were applied in obtaining secondary data:

  • A review of relevant literature
  • Consultations with the relevant stakeholders
  • A review of relevant legislation
  • On the basis of legislative requirements, an understanding as to what a best practice model would be

The tool developed to collect the primary data was a survey questionnaire - the main reason posited for the use of the questionnaire was that the research team wanted to determine the extent to which respondents held a particular attitude or perspective in respect of the different social development domains that were investigated during the research process.

B.5. Data Capturing
The database was constructed on the basis of the questionnaire structure. Data was captured using the different categories, which were set up as fields on the database. To facilitate the interpretation and analysis of data, it is necessary that it be captured into a database. To facilitate this, the data was coded.

B.6. Data Analysis
Most data analysis relies on the analysis of multiple variables simultaneously. The data can be analysed through a number of different tools including multiple correlation, factor analysis, multiple regression and path analysis. However, for the purposes of this research simple tables were the easiest way to present the information to facilitate the analysis of the data. Data was analysed in a manner that allowed the researchers to identify emerging trends, the frequency of responses and the key issues affecting the community.

C. Social Development Needs For Greater Kliptown - Key Findings

This section highlights the key findings and recommendations in respect of the different groups targeted during the research. Respondents within the respective target groups highlighted challenges that confronted them daily.

C.1. Demographics
  • Gender and age
The total number of respondents was 2083; the majority (64%) of the respondents were between 15 and 30 years of age with 4% over the age of 65 years. The majority (66%) of the respondents were female. The age and gender skewedness is a reflection of the profile of the overall population of Kliptown with 2/3 of the population being female and 1/3 male and the majority of the population under the age of 30. 37% of the research respondents were young women, 27% adult women and 2% were aged women. 18% of the research respondents were youth, 14% were adult males and 2% were aged men.
  • Marital Status
A large (40%) percent of the female respondents interviewed are currently single. Less than a fifth (16%) of the female respondents were lawfully married. A similar trend has been reported for males, i.e. the majority (70%) of the male respondents were single, with less than 5% of the males were lawfully married. This is characteristic of the, community profile, age of the research respondents and the popular practice of co-habiting within the community.
  • Family structure
The majority (54%) of research respondents belong to a core family, i.e. the respondents belonged to a household where there were two or more adults. Less than one fifth of the research respondents belonged to a single parent household

C.2. Services
The following services were reported on during the needs assessment:
  • Water
Within the Kliptown area there are a number of informal settlements. The communal taps that are present in most informal settlements have been set up to provide access to free water. Currently 98% the respondents stated that they have access to clean drinking water. The majority (87%) of the respondents have access to water from communal taps and water kiosks, which are less than 100m away from their home. 8% of the respondents, stated that they have water piped to a yard tap and 3% have water piped into the house.
  • Sanitation
The majority (60%) of research respondents stated that they are using chemical toilets. These respondents are located within fairly large informal settlement population. 19% of the respondents use the bucket system with a very small percentage (6%) using a flush toilet.
  • Energy
The majority (79%) of the respondents stated that they used paraffin as an energy source. 17% of the respondents use wood as a source of energy and 4% use charcoal and candles as energy sources.
  • Education
A number of challenges in respect of education have been identified. Majority (84%) of the research respondents were currently not engaged in any educational programme. The reasons cited for non-participation but the majority (72%) was a lack of funds. School dropout was reported by approximately 25% of the research respondents. The knock-on effects of poor education have major implications in respect of the quality of life, accessing formal employment and having access to good quality life.
  • Employment
The majority (70%) of the research respondents were unemployed. This percentage (70%) is considerably higher than the national average of 30.5%. The unemployment trend across the different age groups is very similar with the majority (72%) of youth being unemployed. The majority of adult men (65%) and women (66%) were unemployed. The trend displayed in the research population is the current reflection of the Kliptown community. The reason posited by the majority (67%) of respondents was the lack of available work opportunities within Kliptown and the City of Johannesburg. A major implication in respect of the lack of employment results in a highly impoverished community and a community at risk from the perils of poverty.
  • Social Grants
A correlating trend to high unemployment rates is the percentage of the respondent population on social grants. The majority (75%) of the research respondents were in receipt of social grants
  • Health
The majority of the respondents stated that they have access to some form of health care services, 71% of the respondents stated that they have access to clinics, 70% stated they have access to a hospital facility, 55% stated that they have access to medical personnel - doctor (55%) and nurses (48%).

C.3. Challenges Facing Women
The different target groups responded to a range of questions in respect issues most affecting women. Violence against women was rated as the highest risk by the majority (73%) of respondents - the "violence against women" defined as being any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. This was followed by teenage pregnancy (66%) and poverty (63%), which was perceived as a direct result of poor education and the lack of job opportunities. Other challenges included the lack of access to formal training (47%), child care services (38%) and disempowerment of evidenced through lack of participation in decision making (37%) and the lack of Legislative protection of the rights of women (38%). The implications of these challenges are:
To address the challenges raised above the following recommendations are made:
  • There is a need to develop a programme that will look at the role that men can play in dealing with the issue of violence against women. This can take the form of communication utilising various media, education on the rights of women and the impact that violence has on them directly and on the whole community indirectly, the role and responsibility for men to ensure that women do not suffer from any kind of violence, contribution into proactive law enforcement at the community level.
  • There is a need to conduct an overall education programme for the whole Kliptown community in order to inform the community of the rights of women, the law and how it protects women from violence, information on how to go about dealing with violence against women as well as organisations that provide support from women who are victims of violence and mobilisation of the whole community to banish violence against women. This will also be aimed at breaking the silence surrounding issues of violence against women.
  • There is a need to provide support within Kliptown for women who have been victims of violence. This can be done through setting up a desk which supports women that are victims of violence, a shelter for women and children subjected to violence in the home, counselling services for abused women, training of community members/groups to offer support services to these victims.
  • School-based sex education plays an important role in the prevention of teenage pregnancy. Characteristics of successful sex education programmes include use of social learning theories; provision of factual, accurate information; inclusion of activities that address social or media influences on sexual behaviours; and practice of communication and negotiation skills. The ways that young men and young women think and talk about sex vary and can also differ between social groups of young people. The needs and interests of young men should be addressed as well as those of young women.
  • There is consistent evidence that providing sex and contraceptive education within school settings does not lead to an increase in sexual activity or incidence of pregnancy; rather, the provision of clear information about contraceptive methods and how and when to access contraceptive services appears to be important to the success of educational programmes.
  • Abstinence programmes: The main aim of abstinence-based programmes is to delay sexual activity until later in the teenage years or until marriage. Such a programme would generally develop decision-making and refusal skills, and rarely provide information on contraceptive methods or contraceptive services.
  • Programmes encouraging vocational development: Programmes which increase life options by providing guidance, encouragement or support to complete education or improve job prospects may help motivate young people to avoid pregnancy.
  • Setting up youth friendly health centres - Youth friendly health services - provides to the youth population general counselling related to sexual and reproductive health, including pre and post HIV test counselling, prevention and treatment of STDs and education of health workers
  • The provision of opportunities for women to participate in the economy of the community through learnerships
  • The provision of opportunities to open up own business focusing on some of the following key services and products
  • Enhance the access of women, including women entrepreneurs, to financial services through legislative support and training
  • There is a need to assess current programmes and projects being implemented in Kliptown on the basis of dealing with women and poverty
  • There is a need to strengthen community-based support systems, as an integral part of social development, in order to enable women living in poverty to withstand adverse economic environments and preserve their livelihood
  • If women are to participate actively in the formal and informal economy appropriate childcare facilities must be made available. One programme that could be effected immediately in the Kliptown area is the establishment of childcare centre. This would be responsive to the needs of the community and would among others perform a number of functions including - coordinated access to subsidy information and assistance with applications; information on child care choices, by maintaining a registry of caregivers and on licensing information; referrals to child care services and opportunities for parents and caregivers to network and connect with others in the community; training for child care providers and parents; resource and equipment lending programs; and
  • Empowering young women with academic and technical training, career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to prepare them to participate fully in society (In collaboration with parents, non-governmental organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the private sector)
  • Develop and implement education, training and retraining policies for women, especially young women and women re-entering the labour market, to provide skills to meet the needs of a changing socio- economic context for improving their employment opportunities
  • Design educational and training programmes for women who are unemployed in order to provide them with new knowledge and skills that will enhance and broaden their employment opportunities, including self-employment, and development of their entrepreneurial skills
  • Ensure the availability of a broad range of educational and training programmes that lead to ongoing acquisition by women and girls of the knowledge and skills required for living in, contributing to and benefiting from their communities and nations
  • Provision of support for child care and other services to enable mothers to continue their schooling

C.4. Challenges Facing Men
This question looked at the key challenges that the men of Kliptown face. The respondents were requested to identify 5 relevant needs from the list that had been supplied and to rate them on the basis of which one is the most critical and which one is the least critical. The majority (78%) of the respondents stated that alcohol and substance abuse was the main challenge facing men. This was followed by lack of employment opportunities (71%), access to child support services (66%); lack of career/ technical skills (58%) and HIV/AIDS (57%).

Possible interventions that should be considered include:

  • Alcohol and drug abuse programmes for children at schools and other educational facilities
  • The starting of Alanon and support groups in the community
  • Providing alcoholics and drug addicts with rehabilitation services (half-way house, counseling services)
  • Training educators on how to support children who are living in families where there is abuse of drugs and alcohol.
  • Providing opportunities for men to engage in learnerships - this would provide them with a subsistence allowance, teach them a skill and provide them with practical experience. The Greater Kliptown Development Forum (GKDF) and the Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA) should begin engaging with the SETA's to secure such opportunities.
  • Liaise with the Department of Trade and Industry - the SME unit secure opportunities for capacity building in technical areas as well as business development
  • Creates projects that focus on workplace programmes - these programmes provides the individual with both theoretical and practical skills
  • Engage in a programme with technical schools and colleges that assists in the enhancement of technical skills
  • Set up income generation projects with a diversified service base - invite interested persons to participate in such activities
  • To mitigate the impact of the disease a number of programmes can be implemented: These include:
  • Care and support programmes - training of Home-based care workers to care an support individuals and families infected and affected with HIV/AIDS
  • Treatment programmes - create awareness amongst men and other target groups about the need to be tested. Create centres within the community where men can receive voluntary counselling and testing
  • Prevention messages - posting of prevention messages in places that are frequented by men these include shebeens, sporting events etc.
  • Behaviour Change Communication - design projects that focus on print and visual media - these include engaging youth in theatre programmes, schools in prevention programmes, distribution of posters and pamphlets and encouraging street theatre and music focusing on the disease.
  • Set up appropriate referral centres that would provide affected and infected people with the correct advice and support.

C.5. Challenges Facing The Youth
During the research a number of challenges were identified by youth. The majority (60%) of the youth respondents stated that the lack of secure family life and protection from violence and abuse was a major challenge experienced by youth. The violence and abuse was further explained in respect of being exposed to high-risk situations e.g. HIV/AIDS, drug and alcohol abuse. Poor self-esteem (57%) due to the lack of educational and employment opportunities was cited as major challenge facing youth. The challenges raised are reflective of the Kliptown environment, which is underdeveloped and is not conducive to developing youth to be productive in society.

To address the challenges faced by youth a number of programmes can be implemented - these are

  • Programme on career guidance
  • Training of lay counsellors on career opportunities
  • Exposing youth to learnership programmes
  • Accessing information with regards to job opportunities and matching the youth to the programme
  • Setting up counselling centres which provide youth with counselling and material on careers and job opportunities
  • Recreation Programmes - to create a healthy environment and engage youth in positive and productive behaviour it would be important to consider recreational programmes. These could include:
    • Sporting activities and programmes
    • Programmes offered through a library
    • Youth development programmes
    • Youth clubs that engage in community programmes
    • To address the issues of HIV/AIDS a number of projects can be implemented - these include:
      • Prevention programmes that raise skills and awareness amongst young people to reduce risk behaviour and vulnerability, seek health seeking behaviours for sexual reproductive health services, empower youth through education, communication and skills building
  • Design youth friendly health service centres - these centres could be used for prevention, care, and support of youth on sexual reproductive health issues
  • Design youth friendly health corners - these corners are used to as advocacy and community mobilisation points to mitigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS - where youth become aware of their individual and collective vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and youth are motivated to do something about their vulnerability
  • Income generation programmes - programmes in which youth are taught skills that can be used to generate income and contribute to the household
  • Voluntarism - youth can be trained to in the care and support of those infected with the disease. In many parts of the country and in other countries youth are trained in caring for people living with AIDS by providing physical support and care to the affected family. In return for this the youth receive a stipend or get access to education opportunities.
  • Life skills development programme: The life skills approach would have to be an interactive educational methodology aimed at enhancing adolescents' ability to take greater responsibility for their own lives by making desirable choices, gaining assertiveness in resisting negative pressures and avoiding risk behaviours. The programme should be designed to provide the necessary competencies of the youth to be able to:
  • Promote social and emotional development among adolescents.
  • Explain the physical and psychological developments in adolescents with confidence.
  • Identify and explain the importance of the foundation life skills areas.
  • Enhance the development of adolescents using life skills approaches.
  • Plan with emphasis on the activities that can enhance life skills development among the youth of Kliptown

C.6. Challenges facing the Aged
While the aged within Kliptown only form a minor percentage of the overall population in Kliptown there are some key challenges that affect them that need to be dealt with at a developmental level. The majority (70%) of respondents stated that access to a health facility within Kliptown community is greatly needed. Other needs presented include, the setting up of an old age home (49%), safety and security for the aged (48%), access to social services - which includes cash points, food, and transport to cash points and home based care (30%).

The following priority programmes are recommended for the aged:

  • Setting up of an old age home that provides the aged with residential care and non-residential activities e.g. cultural activities, skills - knitting, sewing, handicrafts etc.
  • Social services desk - the aged can requests for services in applications for grants, pensions and food hampers and social services related to family issues
  • Home-based care - many of the aged are taking responsibility for the care of their children and grand children who are infected with HIV - a programme focusing on home based care to support the aged in caring for the ill because of HIV/AIDS needs to be considered.

C.7. Challenges Facing Young Children
The main challenges facing young children include issues associated with accessing child support grants, risks of being infected with HIV/ AIDS or affected as a result of parents'/guardians' infection, abuse of children and compromising early childhood development.

The respondents rated the inability of departments of social welfare, health and education to look at the needs of children in Kliptown as a critical challenge to providing healthy childhood development. Service delivery by local and provincial government is seen as inadequate in meeting the service requirements of the children of Kliptown; this is partly due to the fragmentation that exists in the activities of the various tiers of government. 40% of all the respondents rated the inability of government to provide essential childhood development services to the children of Kliptown.

Programmes to be considered in addressing the challenges faced by children include the following:

  • The HIV/AIDS awareness and educational campaign focus has been on the advocacy of infection prevention as opposed to a positive support campaign that instils the right attitudes, values and skills required to protect oneself from the dreaded disease. A partnership driven campaign needs to be engaged where the mass community is mobilized to educate and train people in HIV/AIDS prevention and care in a manner that translates to a new way of life. This will lead to the de-stigmatisation of the disease and support of those affected and infected by the disease.
  • The role of community based organisations and the community at large is critical in lending support to child orphans. A child orphan programme can be set up such that they could be housed and supported in controlled environment, this allows for adequate support for child growth, nutrition, development and for them to engage in asocial activities. Another alternative is to engage community stakeholders in a programme that supports the households affected by the pandemic such as schools (students), community based organisations, NGO's, local government, etc in an effort to coordinate and implement a sustainable programme for these children.
  • There needs to be a comprehensive community based programme that educates parents and their children of the children rights through partnership efforts that include educators, community leaders, business, government and the broader community (including children) i.e.
  • Establish a database to document the scope of the child abuse problem in Kliptown and develop intermediary interventions to deal with the issue
  • Establish a community based support system for children who have been abused and resources for child abuse and neglect prevention (including treatment of children, families and perpetrators)
  • Implementation of measures to support positive parenting
  • Provide conflict resolution in the household especially between parent and child
  • Increase quality child abuse and neglect prevention training for the community and community working with children and families
  • Introducing more focused educational programmes for child abuse within the community

D. The Social Development Strategy

The social development strategy was developed on the basis of the needs that had been identified in the needs assessment process. The aim thereof is to improve such social characteristics by contributing towards equity within the community; ensuring community participation; improving the living standards of people; ensuring that the community attains material well being; ensuring that the Kliptown citizens enjoy citizen entitlements as well as ensuring that the environment is conducive for cultural and personal expressions.

This will involve the implementation of specific programmes that are based on a number of key strategic principles that are aimed at achieving short term, medium term and long term outcomes. Short-term outcomes will be achieved as part of programme and project implementation i.e. these are project and programme related outputs and outcomes. The medium term outcomes will also be based on the achievement of broad social (personal) change within the community as well as achieving orchestrated change that focuses on systems, structures and resources. The long-term outcomes will be based on the achievement of broader societal change that will create a regenerated Greater Kliptown.

The vision of the Greater Kliptown Development is "The sustainable and integrated development of greater Kliptown and Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication as a prosperous, desirable, well-managed residential and commercial area and a major national and international heritage site".

D.1. The Strategic Objectives
The strategic objectives of the Greater Kliptown development strategy are:
  • To effectively and efficiently deal with HIV/ AIDS and the challenges it poses
  • To ensure that the community has access to a comprehensive package of social services
  • To mitigate against violence and abuse within the community (in its various forms)
  • To effectively utilise sports, recreation, arts and culture to deal with social development challenges
  • To ensure that the community has direct access to a comprehensive package of health care services
  • To create opportunities for self and community development in order to effectively contribute towards economic development
Each of these strategic objectives is directly linked to and informs a specific programme that will be considered for implementation.

D.2. Envisaged Outcomes - Social Change
The outcomes of the strategy as well as programmes will be measured at a number of different levels and should guide the way the monitoring and evaluation system is designed. The ultimate objectives of the strategy are to achieve personal/ individual change by focusing on attitudes and behaviour; to achieve orchestrated change through the development of systems and structures as well as the provision of key resources; and achieving broad societal change that is aimed at attaining specific impacts.

The state of the community in terms of the status of the individuals who comprise it as well as the community as a whole can be measured at any time before, during and after a development project has been undertaken. The differences between individual or social characteristics of a community from one point of time to another provide an indication of the change that has occurred while the community was engaged in community dialogue and collective action.
  • Personal Change (Attitudes & Behaviour): The potential outcomes of dialogue and collective action for the individuals who participate include:
  • Improvement in skills necessary to perform new behaviours
  • Ideational factors such as knowledge, beliefs, values, perceived risk, subjective norms and even self-image; emotional responses such as feelings of solidarity, empathy and confidence; and increase in social support and influence from others as well as increased advocacy to others
  • Intention to engage in new behaviour in the future
  • Specific behaviours related to the problem addressed by the dialogue and collective action.
These individual outcomes can be the result of the direct influence of one of the external catalysts identified in the model, such as mass-media messages that promote specific practices and the introduction of health clinics near a community for example.

Thematic Areas for Personal/ Individual Change: There are a number of broad themes that would be used to influence personal/individual change as far as the people of Kliptown are concerned. These themes are based on the context within which the people of community exist and are based on development of a future that is far removed from the current status but is also based strongly on the historical importance of Kliptown.

Value of self: This focuses on the human being as the ultimate resource and technology and encouraging individuals to value themselves as well as others within the community. Understandably there are huge challenges in relation to self-esteem within the community especially amongst the youth; there is a need to get their confidence back and to believe that they are well worth the effort when it comes to development.

Internal locus of control: Locus of Control refers to an individual's perception of what are the main causes of events in life. More simply put, do you believe that you control your destiny or that it is controlled by others or fate? "A locus of control orientation is a belief about whether the outcomes of our actions are contingent on what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personal control (external control orientation)." (Zimbardo, 1985, p. 275). An individual with an external locus of control believes that his/her behaviour is guided by fate, luck, or other external circumstances. An individual with an internal locus of control believes that his/her behaviour is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts. The aim will be to help community members understand that they now control their destiny.

Breaking the cycle: The strong feeling is that the Kliptown community is caught up in a vicious cycle of poverty that has wide ranging implications on a number of social issues like violence and abuse, drug and alcohol abuse, social crime, HIV/AIDS and others. There is a need to break this cycle and for the members of the community to say "NO" to these issues.

From followers to leaders: There is a need to develop a new brand of community leaders that will emerge from the current crop of followers. Success in relation to individuals means that they have the belief that they can be the leaders of tomorrow and that they can influence policy and decision making at community, local as well as provincial level. There is a need fro community members to "stand up and be counted" as far as the development is concerned. People need to stake a claim in the development and learn to guard and cherish it.

"Through the fire": There is a need to create the belief that from a development point of view, the community has been through the worst it could ever go through and that from here onwards the situation will change. It is an acknowledgement that people have been neglected in the past and that they have suffered as a consequence, however this all is going to change.

Orchestrated Change (Systems, Structures & Resources): There is a need to ensure that systems, structures and resources that are of optimum benefit to the community are influenced in order to play a role with regards to development.

Access to resources: One of the major challenges that the Kliptown community faces is that of lack of access resources that will support personal as well as community wide development e.g. access to credit and finance for business purposes, creating access to markets for products that are locally produced, access to higher education, access to information for decision making as well as other resources. Historically Kliptown can be classified as one of the communities that have suffered greatly due to the apartheid systems of government and there is a need for a concerted effort to reverse this.

Community & business structures: This is aimed at developing sustainable community and business structures that operate within Kliptown. It is envisaged that Kliptown will develop into a community of excellence and will become self-sufficient and the local economy will play a key role in this regard.

Government: This will involve the community governance as well as enhancement of the role that the government plays within the Kliptown community. The strategy is aimed at creating mechanisms that are conducive for the development of an environment in which government and the provision of government services can be enhanced.

Societal Outcomes: There are a number of broader societal outcomes that need to be achieved as a result of the implementation of the social development strategy and related programmes. This relates to the following:

Leadership: Development of sustained and effective leadership, which provides a base for organizing community participation, is an important outcome indicator for social change. Strong and supportive leadership is characterized by a combination of open management, shared vision, team spirit, decentralized control and role clarity. When groups experience leadership that inspires without dominating, members are more likely to get involved, share the vision of the leader(s) (e.g., goals, objectives, indicators of success, values, norms, future orientation), share in the benefits of the program and institutionalize the process of social change. There may be leaders (people or groups, traditional or formal) in the community, but no leaders on the specific issue (e.g., domestic violence, family planning, adolescent health). Thus, one of the main objectives of a social-change program is to strengthen or develop leadership for that particular problem or program.

Operationally, leadership can be defined to have the following six dimensions:
  • Extent of leadership,
  • Equity and diversity,
  • Flexibility,
  • Competence in encouraging and securing dialogue and action,
  • Vision and innovation, and
  • Trustworthiness and popularity.
Degree and Equity of Participation: This dimension measures the range of participation to include the traditionally disenfranchised members of the larger community (e.g., women, HDI's, age, occupation, as related to the issue), as well as the diversity of activities which members get involved, ranging from planning, selection of leaders, decision on services and modes of delivery, resource mobilization and management, to evaluation of program outcomes.

From an operational point of view this would look at:
  • Access to participation, and
  • Extent and level of participation.
Information Equity: This refers to the level of awareness and knowledge about an issue, health problem or program that is shared (common wisdom) among different individuals within a group or between different groups in a community. Information equity also refers to the level of access that the community has to the corresponding information sources. Besides assessing the level of information equity at the community level, emphasis may be placed on assessing the corresponding level among specific groups (or most vulnerable groups) related to the issue or program. High levels of shared information are likely to affect the level of direct or indirect participation in the implementation of the program and other activities related to the issue. Individuals with a good understanding about the issue or program and with access to sources of information will be more likely to participate, and that will reinforce other social-change outcomes such as sense of ownership.

For purposes of this study two dimensions of information equity can be identified:
  • Awareness and correct knowledge about the issue or program, and
  • Enhanced free flow of information.

Collective Self-Efficacy: Collective efficacy refers to a group's shared belief in its conjoint capabilities to attain their goals and accomplish desired tasks (Bandura, 1986). It involves the belief or perception that an effective collective action is possible to address a social or public health problem. It differs from individual self-efficacy though, of course, is rooted in it. A group of self-doubters cannot be moulded into a collectively efficacious group. On the other hand, even if individual members are capable and their self-efficacy beliefs are high, low confidence in the group's capacity for collective action may still inhibit not only collective action but community dialogue as well. Beliefs of collective efficacy may be a predictor of group performance. Furthermore, collective self-efficacy is not a monolithic group attribute. Individuals who occupy different roles or positions in the same organization may differ in their perceptions of the group's collective efficacy (Bandura, 1995). It is expected that a community's collective efficacy will influence the group's dialogue, goal setting, collective effort and especially their persistence when barriers arise.

The dimensions of Collective Self-Efficacy are as follows:

  • Perceived efficacy to take action as a group.
  • Perceived capability of other community members.
  • Perceived efficacy to solve problems as a group.

Sense Of Ownership: Sense of ownership is defined as the community's feeling/belief that the problem/issue and/or program belong to them and they have a commitment to the program. How intensively and extensively the people are involved in defining the issue or program, the planning process and the implementation, will affect the sense of ownership. "Ownership develops when partners play a key role in formulating and implementing a project and understand the benefits of participation. The recognition by each partner that he will be better able to achieve his own goals by collaborating and helping his partners reach their respective goals is the best way to ensure partners are committed for the long haul." (Kraemer (1993), p. 23). Even though an external agent may help determine the needs/program goals, and guide the implementation process, the community should be heavily involved so that a sense of ownership can develop. The gain of creating a sense of ownership is that it reinforces what people learn and encourages them to integrate the shared learning into related situations. This in turn, feeds back into strengthening other social-change outcomes such as "sense of collective efficacy."

For the purposes of this strategy, six dimensions of measurement for this outcome can be identified:

  • Importance of the issue or program to participants,
  • Sense of responsibility for the program,
  • Contribution to the program,
  • Benefit from the program,
  • Participants' sense of ownership of either credit or blame in the program outcome, and
  • Personal identification with the program.

Social Cohesion: Social cohesion consists of the forces that act on members of a group or community to remain in, and actively contribute to, the group. In cohesive groups, members want to be part of the group; they generally like one another and get along well, and are loyal and united in the pursuit of group goals. Social cohesion is an important antecedent and consequence of successful collective action. Social cohesion mediates group formation, maintenance, and productivity.

For the purposes of this strategy, social cohesion can be divided into at least six related social and cognitive dimensions:

  • Sense of belonging,
  • Feelings of morale,
  • Goal consensus,
  • Trust,
  • Reciprocity, and
  • Network cohesion.

Social Norms: Social norms are the collectively agreed-upon standards and rules that are adhered to and accepted by the majority of the members of a particular society or group. Social norms are people's beliefs about the attitudes and behaviours that are normal, acceptable or even expected in a particular social context. In many situations, people's perception of these norms will greatly influence their behaviour.

For purposes of this strategy, three dimensions of social norms can be identified:

  • Norms on participation,
  • Norms about leadership, and
  • Norms about the specific issue/programme.

D.3. The Strategic Principles
There are a number of key factors that underlined the development of this strategy as well as of the programmes more specifically. These factors were used to guide the overall design of the programmes as well as inform the content of the design and conceptual aspects of specific projects that would be implemented as part of the programmes. These underlying factors were:

  • Social Marketing
  • Communication-for-Behavioural-Impact [COMBI]
  • Awareness building and education
  • Training, skills development and capacity building
  • Targeted initiatives/ projects
  • Monitoring and evaluation
  • Sustainability
  • Social Marketing

Social marketing is "...A process for influencing human behaviour on a large scale, using marketing principles for the purpose of societal benefit rather than commercial profit." 2 Ultimately Social marketing is the planning and implementation of programs designed to bring about social change using concepts from commercial marketing. The focus is on behavioural change. It involves:

  • Program planning, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive programs to change behaviours
  • The use of research to understand point of view of the target audience
  • Developing interventions that integrate audience needs with needs of sponsors - the exchange
  • A consideration of competition i.e. The target audience can go somewhere else or do something else or maintain current behaviour, the need is to modify program, delivery, service provider or the product to make the competing behaviour less attractive, less available, or more costly
  • Ongoing monitoring and evaluation

Social marketing is:

  • Not social advertising
  • Not driven by organizational expert's agendas, it is a balance between the expertise of professionals and the experiential expertise of our audience (The people of Greater Kliptown)
  • Not promotion or media outreach only, this is what most people think of when they hear the "term" marketing
  • Not about coercing behaviours through punishment
  • Not a "one approach" model

There are a number of interventions that are aimed at behavioural change and these are outlined in the continuum of interventions below. Education is largely considered in situations where the target audience is unaware of their particular situation and is not even considering change. The likelihood is that the target audience is maintaining this behaviour that needs to be changed. Law enforcement is mostly applied in situations where these behaviours are entrenched and there is no desire to change on the part of the target audience. Social marketing is applicable in scenarios where the target audience is aware of the behavioural change that is required but is not considering changing this behaviour due to a number of reasons. For example in the case of Kliptown, it could be argued that there is a level of awareness as far as HIV/AIDS is concerned, however an indication that the community have not changed their behaviours can be reflected in the number of teenage pregnancies which is still on the increase.

The social marketing is based on a number of broad principles. These are outlined below:

  • The ultimate objective of marketing is to influence action;
  • Action is undertaken whenever target audiences believe that the benefits they receive will be greater than the costs they incur;
  • Programs to influence action will be more effective if they are based on an understanding of the target audience's own perceptions of the proposed exchange;
  • Target audiences are seldom uniform in their perceptions and/or likely responses to marketing efforts and so should be partitioned into segments;
  • Recommended behaviours always have competition, which must be understood and addressed;
  • The environment is constantly changing and so program effects must be regularly monitored and management must be prepared to rapidly alter strategies and tactics.
  • Efforts must incorporate all of the "4 Ps," i.e.:
    • Create an enticing "Product" (i.e., the package of benefits associated with the desired action);
    • Minimize the "Price" the target audience believes it must pay in the exchange;
    • Make the exchange and its opportunities available in "Places" that reach the audience and fit its lifestyles;
    • Promote the exchange opportunity with creativity and through channels and tactics that maximize desired responses;
    • Recommended behaviours always have competition which must be understood and addressed

The model:

The Social Marketing Process

  • Defining the problem: This involves
    • Setting goals and objectives
    • Reviewing data sources/literature
    • Identifying what actions/behaviour change could reduce the problem
    • Identifying preliminary target audience and target behaviour.
  • Identifying Who Must Act to Solve Problem: This involves:
    • Collection and analysis of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and other data on target audience
    • Segmentation of the target audience into smaller, more homogeneous groups for which uniquely appropriate programs and interventions can be designed
    • Selection of target segments for your program and plan research
  • Formative Research that is aimed at:
    • Understanding selected target segment: needs, wants, hopes, fears, knowledge, attitude, behaviour, perceived risk
    • Researching behavioural determinants of desired behaviour for selected target segment
    • Planning initial concepts and program elements
  • Develop Projects and Interventions by:
    • Setting behavioural objectives for selected segment
    • Designing interventions for selected segment
    • Applying marketing principles (the "marketing mix")
    • Pre-testing all products, services and messages including intervention
  • The Product:
    • Behaviour, service, product being exchanged with the target audience for a price and benefit
    • Behaviour, service, product must compete successfully against the benefit of the current behaviour
  • The Price:
    • Cost to the target audience of changing behaviour
    • Can be financial, or more often related to other "costs"
  • Time
  • Effort
  • Lifestyle
  • Psychological cost
  • Place:

o Channels through which products or programs are available (access)
o Move programs or products to places that the audience frequents, in order to ease access

  • Promotion
    • Communicating to the audience about product/program, price, and place variables
  • Advertising
  • Media relations
  • Events
  • Personal selling
  • Entertainment
  • Direct mail
  • Politics:
    • Stimulate policy/rules that influence voluntary behaviour change
  • Systems and environmental change factors
    • Not policies that punish "bad" behaviours
  • Deliver and monitor:
    • Train and motivate staff and community members involved
    • Build products and programs and execute
    • Distribute materials
    • Refine product/program and materials as mid-course monitoring data suggests
  • Conduct Evaluation:
    • Conduct process and outcome evaluation
  • Linked to behaviour objectives
    • Did you reach target audience?
    • Did program have an impact?
    • Did desired outcome occur, why/why not
    • Revise evaluation plans and models in accordance with program changes
  • Communication for Behavioural Impact (COMBI)

COMBI is social mobilization directed at the task of mobilizing all societal and personal influences on an individual and family to prompt individual and family action. It is a process, which blends strategically a variety of communication interventions, intended to engage individuals and families in considering recommended healthy behaviours and to encourage the adoption and maintenance of those behaviours.

COMBI is rooted in people's knowledge, understanding and perception of the recommended behaviour. The "market/community" is intimately involved from the outset through practical, participatory community research and situational analysis relating desired behaviours to expressed or perceived needs/wants/desires. This situational analysis involves listening to people and learning about their perceptions and grasp of the offered behaviour, the factors which would constrain or facilitate adoption of the behaviour, their sense of the costs (time, effort, money) in relation their perception of value of the behaviour to their lives.

This approach to behavioural change is very similar to the social marketing approach and it advocates a particular focus with regards to behavioural change:

  • Away from people as the objects for change and on to people and communities as the essential components of their own change
  • Away from designing, testing and delivering messages and on to supporting dialogue and debate on the key issues of concern
  • Away from the didactic conveying of information from technical experts and on to sensitively placing that information into the dialogue and debate
  • Away from a focus on individual behaviours and on to social norms, policies, culture and a supportive environment
  • Away from persuading people to do something and on to negotiating the best way forward in a partnership process
  • Away from technical experts in 'outside' agencies dominating and guiding the process and on to the people most affected by the issues of concern playing a central role

The Key Steps In Designing A COMBI Plan

Identifying the behavioural objectives
1. The overall goal: a statement of the overall programme goal that COMBI will help achieve.

For example... To contribute to the elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in [location] by the year 2020

2. The behavioural objective/s: a statement of specific, measurable, appropriate and time bound behavioural objectives. For example... To prompt approximately 800,000 individuals (i.e. everyone other than pregnant women, new mothers of infants under a week old and children under 5 years of age) in [location] to accept the hand delivered set of LF prevention pills (maximum 4) and to swallow these pills in the presence of a health worker/volunteer on October 27th, 2001.

3. The situational market analysis vis-à-vis the precise behavioural goal: a "consumer orientated" exploration of the factors influencing the attainment of the behavioural objectives that will inform the strategy and the communication mix.

The situational market analysis
COMBI uses state-of-the-art participatory research techniques adapted from marketing, communications, anthropology, and sociology to identify behavioural issues amenable to communication solutions. The situational market analysis involves listening to people and learning about their perceptions and grasp of the offered behaviour(s) through tools such as TOMA (Top of the Mind Analysis), and DILO (Day in the Life Of). Their sense of the costs (time, effort, money) in relation to their perception of value of the behaviour to their lives is explored through a Cost vs. Value calculation.

Other tools such as the Force Field Analysis helps community members, field staff, local experts, and the COMBI specialist to analyse the social, political, ecological, moral, legal, and cultural factors that could constrain or facilitate adoption of the behaviour.

The situational market analysis also examines where and from whom people seek information and advice on the particular health problem and why they use these information sources. The concept of positioning (used extensively in the advertising world), also helps the development of appropriate messages and communication approaches. Areas that require further investigation are also highlighted.

Finally, issues not substantially amenable to communication solutions, such as the ready availability of services, are documented so that appropriate organizational change or political action can be taken.

The communication strategy and mix

4. The overall strategy for achieving the stated behavioural result: a description of the general communication approach and actions which need to be taken to achieve the behavioural results in light of #3 above and the communication issues identified and presented as follows:

(a) Re-state Behavioural Objective.
(b) Set out "Communication Objectives" which will need to be achieved in order to achieve behavioural result(s).
(c) Outline Communication Strategy: a broad outline of the proposed communication actions for achieving communication and behavioural results in terms of the five communication actions listed in #5.

5. The COMBI Plan of Action: a description of the integrated communication actions to be undertaken with specific communication details in relation (but not exclusive) to:

1. Public Relations/Advocacy/
Administrative Mobilization, for putting the particular healthy behaviour on the public and administrative/programme management agenda via the mass media: news coverage, talk shows, soap operas, celebrity spokespersons, discussion programmes; meetings/discussions with various categories of government and community leadership, service providers, administrators; official memoranda; partnership meetings.

2. Community Mobilization, including use of participatory research, community group meetings, partnership meetings, traditional media, music, song and dance, road shows, community drama, leaflets, posters, pamphlets, videos, home visits.

3. Sustained Appropriate Advertising, (in MRIP fashion - Massive, Repetitive, Intense, Persistent), via radio, television, newspapers and other available media, engaging people in reviewing the merits of the recommended behaviour vis-à-vis the "cost" of carrying it out.

4. Personal Selling/Interpersonal Communication/Counselling, at the community level, in homes and particularly at service points, with appropriate informational literature and additional incentives, and allowing for careful listening to people's concerns and addressing them.

5. Point-of-Service Promotion, emphasizing easily accessible and readily available solutions to health problems. The key in planning COMBI programmes is to strive for an integrated approach with a judicious blending and selection of communication actions appropriate to the behavioural outcome desired, and not to believe that one single kind of communication intervention is all-powerful.

Implementation, monitoring and evaluation, budgeting

6. Management and implementation of COMBI: a description of how COMBI will be managed specifying the multidisciplinary planning team, including specific staff or collaborating agencies (e.g., local advertising firms and research institutions), designated to coordinate communication actions and other activities such as monitoring. Also included are any technical advisory groups or government body from which the management team receives technical support or to whom it should report.

7. Monitoring implementation: a description of the process indicators to be used in tracking the reach and effect of the communication actions, including a description of how monitoring data will be gathered, shared and used.

8. Assessment of behavioural impact: details of the behavioural indicators to be used, methods for data collection, analysis and reporting.

9. Calendar/Time-line/Implementation Plan: a detailed work plan with time schedule for the preparation and implementation activities required to execute each communication action as described in #5.

10. The budget: A detailed listing of costs for the various activities described in #5, 6, 7 and 8.

Awareness Building and Education
The premise for the awareness and education initiatives is that Communication programs cannot compensate for a lack of social services; produce behaviour change without supportive program components and cannot be equally effective in addressing all issues or relaying all messages. Ignorance is not always the issue.

The 7-step process

The recommended educational model is slightly different from the conventional engineered educational model. It proposes a very humble and open with regards to education that is related to social issues and aimed at behavioural change. The engineered awareness education approach is based on the premise that if we can inject our knowledge into the audience, then they will realise the error of their ways and start behaving correctly. This approach is based on the assumption that awareness building is the key to behaviour change.

With the 7-step process each one of the conditions as outlined in the diagram is actually an obstacle, so you can think of this model as a set of 7 doors, the 'education strategy' is now about clearing away obstacles rather than awareness building, thus the educator has the humble role of a door opener, rather than a font of ultimate truth. This model allows us to identify which elements are already being fulfilled, and so concentrate resources on the gaps.

The Key Elements

1. Knowledge/awareness: An obvious first step is that people must know there is a problem; know there is a practical, viable solution or alternative; identify the personal costs of inaction and the benefits of action in concrete terms people can relate to (i.e. they 'own' the problem).

2. Desire: Change involves imagination. People need to be able to visualise a different, desirable, future for themselves.

3. Skills: Being able to easily visualise the steps required to reach the goal. This is not about emotion - it is purely rational. People learn skills best by seeing someone else do them.

4. Optimism (or confidence): The belief that success is probable or inevitable. Strong political or community leadership is probably an important ingredient of optimism.
5. Facilitation: People are busy with limited resources and few choices. They may need accessible services, infrastructure and support networks that overcome practical obstacles to carrying out the action.

6. Stimulation: Consciousness is the tool human beings use to overcome habit, but we are unconscious most of the time. Threats vs. inspiration

7. Feedback and reinforcement: A host of voices, situations and institutions daily compel us to act in undesirable, unhealthy and anti-social ways. Devoting considerable resources to continuously feeding success stories and updates to their contributors, as well as new calls for support and action.

Training, Skills Development and Capacity Building
Sustainable communities meet the diverse needs of existing and future residents, their children and other users, contribute to a high quality of life and provide opportunity and choice. They achieve this in ways that make effective use of natural resources, enhance the environment, promote social cohesion and inclusion and strengthen economic prosperity.

In this context community development is based on a number of principles some of which are outlined below:

  • Emphasis on self-help: There is a strong need for the people of Kliptown to take a level of responsibility for dealing with social development related challenges through the implementation of specific projects
  • Mutual support: There is a need for the development of a relationship with the community in order to access key resources as well as obtain key information that would be used for problem solving.
  • The building up of neighbourhood integration: There is a need to build a society that is founded on strong principles of togetherness and appreciation of the environment in which one exists
  • The development of neighbourhood capacities for problem-solving and self-representation: There is a need for the implementation of targeted initiatives that are aimed at improving the ability of the community to solve its own problems and in so ding contribute towards developing self esteem
  • The promotion of collective action to bring a community's preferences to the attention of political decision-makers. There is a need for broader community mobilisation that is aimed at informing major stakeholders and policy and decision makers of the plight of the citizens of Kliptown. Collective action has worked in the past and is a reliable force aimed at ensuring that decision makers contribute towards community development

Capacity Building
In this context capacity building implies development work that strengthens the ability of community organizations and groups to build their structures, systems, people and skills so that they are better able to define and achieve their objectives and engage in consultation and planning, manage community projects and take part in partnerships and community enterprises.

It includes aspects of training, organizational and personal development and resource building, organized in a planned and self-conscious manner, reflecting the principles of empowerment and equality.

The particular framework that is being applied in this instance is founded on the following key principles:

  • Capacity building must not be seen in isolation. Capacity building is part of an overall process of social development
  • All have capacities that may not be obvious to outsiders and it may take time to discover these. It will be critical to understand the capabilities of individuals and institutions within Kliptown before any development work can be effective
  • If it is to be inclusive, interventions must take into account different and sometimes negative, ways in which the impacts will be experienced.
  • Flexibility is important but this must not be at the expense of a loss of direction with regard to wider processes of social and economic transformation.
  • Capacity building is not 'doing development' on the cheap or against the clock. Nor is it risk-free. This is something that should not be taken for granted, there will be a need to implement other processes that will be aimed at ensuring that the skills developed are effectively utilised
  • Targeted Initiatives

As part of the implementation of this strategy and business plans thereof, it is critical that specific aspects of the development process need to be taken into consideration. These issues will be dealt with at the programme and project planning level but it is critical that they are outlined as part of the overall strategic direction that social development needs to take within Kliptown.

Short term employment opportunities (Development related): Dramatic social and economic dislocation, weak community-care for children, the aged, the disabled and HIV/AIDS sufferers, and a dearth of basic services in waste collection, education, health and welfare amongst others, characterise the South African situation. It is therefore easy to justify the expansion of community goods and services. The expanded provision of community services provides long-term jobs and also contributes to human capital development and social cohesion. Critically, social and personal services have by far the highest employment multiplier of any industry, where 47 jobs are generated for every R1 million invested, with a large portion of these jobs accruing to low and semi-skilled workers (Lewis 2001). Given that women workers are disproportionately represented in the social services sector, creating new social service jobs as well as improving the quality and security of existing jobs also has important implications for women empowerment and gender equity.

It is recommended that each and every programme that is linked to the social development programme should cater for the utilisation of local labour in terms of implementation thereof. This is in line with the overall JDA outcomes as well as broad outcomes of the Black Economic Empowerment as well as the Employment Creation Strategy as was developed by ASA Llale and Associates on behalf of the JDA. This will involve:

  • The identification of broad opportunities for short-term employment in relation to the implementation of the social development programmes
  • Identification of potential individuals or organisations within the community that can be used in the implementation process
  • Identification of skills gaps
  • The development of alternative strategies to deal with skills gaps
  • Implementation of those strategies
  • Monitor the implementation thereof including quality assurance
  • Evaluation of the initiatives
  • The development of the profiles for individuals or organisations with regards to their ability to deliver on similar projects (The JDA can use these institutions as their primary service providers in order to deliver on some of their key projects and programmes)

Sustainable SMME development: In view of the fact that there are not too many opportunities for the provision of employment, it is important that SMME's and other organisations within Kliptown become sustainable on order to provide short term as well as permanent employment opportunities for members of the community. They can also be used as the foundation for developing skilled and able entrepreneurs within the community. At the moment SMME development has focused predominantly on construction based SMME's as a huge component of the development has been linked to construction. There is a need for the development of organisations to be able to deliver other services including training, home based care and support to the aged and HIV/ AIDS patients, orphan support and other areas.

These organisations can then be capacitated to deliver on the social development related programmes and projects. The capacity building process itself could be done through the Business Development Services model. This will in turn ensure that there is sustainability and continuity in terms of the delivery of services and deliverables.

Economic development initiatives: There is a need for stronger alignment with specific economic development initiatives as they impact on the Greater Kliptown region and its citizens.

Permanent opportunities (Training, skills development etc.): Education and health are often perceived to have greater potential to 'solve' poverty than they, in fact, possess. Without economic opportunities, in particular, higher levels of education and better health will not put an end to poverty or inequality. Nevertheless, the services provided by these sectors can make a contribution to the alleviation of poverty by increasing poor people's well being. Further, even where the poor do not escape poverty through access to these services, equity demands that they have greater access to education, training, health care, and protection.

Alignment to J2030 principles: The Council has developed a Vision for Johannesburg as a world-class city in which all our citizens will be able to enjoy increased prosperity and quality of life by the year 2030. But in order to make this Vision a reality, we need to put Johannesburg on the road to a high level of sustainable economic growth.

In a nutshell, this means that Johannesburg must be able to encourage the right kinds of long-term economic activity, investment and jobs to ensure a better life for all those who live and work in the City. This booklet looks at what is wrong with Johannesburg at present and what we can do together to fix it.

However, the Council has identified another category of projects with a special purpose. These they have called "catalytic" or flagship projects: their aim is to trigger other similar or associated projects that will support new economic growth immediately. They are intended to change discriminatory decision-making practices in respect of where businesses are located. For example, these projects may be established in or near previously disadvantaged communities and townships where business has traditionally avoided putting its money.3

Strategic partnerships with the City as well as its delivery agents: The City of Johannesburg and its delivery agents are responsible for the delivery of social development related services to all the citizens of Johannesburg. As such the City has a number of programmes and projects that it has to implement in order to ensure that the livelihood of the citizens of the city is improved and that people are developed. It is critical that as part of the implementation of this strategy the City must be actively involved in the delivery of specific services directly to the people of Kliptown and that this strategy should act as the broad outline within which this can be achieved.

Alignment to broad GKDP objectives: The Johannesburg Development Agency (JDA) was established in 2001 as an initiative of the City of Johannesburg to stimulate and support area-based economic development initiatives throughout the Johannesburg metropolitan area in support of Joburg 2030. As development manager of these initiatives, JDA coordinates and manages capital investments and other programmes involving both public and private sector stakeholders.

  • Creating sustainable neighbourhoods by providing sufficient homes in safe, secure and healthy environment for a mix of income groups
  • Maximising the recreational public open space system along the Klipspruit
  • Provide an attractive and stimulating public environment through open spaces
  • Developing the supply chains of the informal and formal retail including the Fresh Produce Market supply chain in the area
  • Provide sufficient infrastructure to the area, entailing access roads, water, electricity, sanitation, refuse removal and storm water drainage
  • Maximising the heritage, tourism and educational significance and importance of Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication, and the experience that tourists can obtain from the everyday life of the area
  • Create employment opportunities and opportunities for local BEE during the construction and operational phases of the project (minimum of 50%)
  • Maximising human potential through pro-active social development programmes
  • Increase private sector and business investment in the area, as well as activities that will strengthen the cultural environment of Kliptown
  • The re-integration of Kliptown into the urban and economic system of Johannesburg, by creating a viable economic and social environment

To this effect the strategy and programmes thereof capture key components of the social development aspects of this vision as well as strategic goals and is integrated with other broad initiatives that are taking place within the community.

Monitoring and Evaluation
Effective program evaluation is a systematic way to improve and account for actions by involving procedures that are useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate. There is a need for a framework that is practical, non-prescriptive and designed to summarize and organize essential elements of program evaluation. The framework should comprise steps in program evaluation and standards for effective program evaluation. Adhering to these steps and standards will allow an understanding of each program's context and will improve how program evaluations are conceived and conducted.

The specific purposes of a monitoring and evaluation framework will be to:

  • Summarize and organize the essential elements of program evaluation
  • Provide a common frame of reference for conducting effective program evaluations
  • Clarify steps in program evaluation
  • Review standards for effective program evaluation; and
  • Address misconceptions about the purposes and methods of program evaluation

There are a number of reasons why monitoring and evaluation is critical:

  • It allows for accountability to the people engaged in the intervention through to strategic partners and funders.
  • It allows you to track progress in relation to impact on the priority issues
  • Improvement - information for strategic and fine tuning programme decisions
  • Acts as a tool for Motivation - a sense of achievement is crucial to all involved
  • Enhances Credibility - enhance the acknowledged credibility of the work

How to Assign Value

Assigning value and making judgments regarding a program on the basis of evidence requires answering the following questions:

  • What will be evaluated? (i.e. what is "the program" and in what context does it exist)
  • What aspects of the program will be considered when judging program performance?
  • What standards must be reached for the program to be considered successful?
  • What evidence will be used to indicate how the program has performed?
  • What conclusions regarding program performance are justified by comparing the available evidence to the selected standards?
  • How will lessons learned from the inquiry be used to improve program effectiveness?

These questions should be addressed at the beginning of a program and revisited throughout its implementation. The framework provides a systematic approach for answering these questions.

Steps in Evaluation Practice
The six connected steps of the framework provide a starting point to tailor an evaluation for a particular program, at a particular point in time. The steps are interdependent and might be encountered in a nonlinear sequence; however, an order exists for fulfilling each - earlier steps provide the foundation for subsequent progress. Thus, decisions regarding how to execute a step are iterative and should not be finalized until previous steps have been thoroughly addressed. The steps are as follows:

  • Engage stakeholders
  • Describe the program
  • Focus the evaluation design
  • Gather credible evidence
  • Justify conclusions
  • Ensure use and share lessons learned

1. Engaging Stakeholders
The evaluation cycle begins by engaging stakeholders (i.e., the persons or organizations having an investment in what will be learned from an evaluation and what will be done with the knowledge). Almost all program work involves partnerships; therefore, any assessment of a program requires considering the value systems of the partners. Stakeholders must be engaged in the inquiry to ensure that their perspectives are understood. When stakeholders are not engaged, evaluation findings might be ignored, criticized, or resisted because they do not address the stakeholders' questions or values. After becoming involved, stakeholders help to execute the other steps. Identifying and engaging the following three principle groups are critical:

  • Those involved in program operations (e.g., sponsors, collaborators, coalition partners, funding officials, administrators, managers, and staff)
  • Those served or affected by the program (e.g., clients, family members, neighborhood organizations, academic institutions, elected officials, advocacy groups, professional associations, skeptics, opponents, and staff of related or competing agencies)
  • Primary users of the evaluation (e.g., the specific persons in a position to do or decide something regarding the program)

2. Describe the Program
Program descriptions set the frame of reference for all subsequent decisions in an evaluation. The description enables comparisons with similar programs and facilitates attempts to connect program components to their effects. Moreover, stakeholders might have differing ideas regarding program goals and purposes. Evaluations done without agreement on the program definition are likely to be of limited use. Sometimes, negotiating with stakeholders to formulate a clear and logical description will bring benefits before data are available to evaluate program effectiveness. Aspects to include in a program description are:

  • Need: What problem or opportunity does the program addresses? Who experiences it?
  • Expected effects: What changes resulting from the program are anticipated? What must the program accomplish to be considered successful?
  • Activities: What steps, strategies, or actions does the program take to effect change?
  • Resources: What assets are available to conduct program activities (e.g., time, talent, technology, information, money, etc.)?
  • Stage of development: How mature is the program (i.e., is the program mainly engaged in planning, implementation, or effects)?
  • Context: What is the operating environment around the program? How might environmental influences (e.g., history, geography, politics, social and economic conditions, secular trends, efforts of related or competing organizations) affect the program and its evaluation?
  • Logic model: What is the hypothesized sequence of events for bringing about change? How do program elements connect with one another to form a plausible picture of how the program is supposed to work?

3. Focus the Evaluation Design
The direction and process of the evaluation must be focused to assess issues of greatest concern to stakeholders while using time and resources as efficiently as possible. Not all design options are equally well suited to meeting the information needs of stakeholders. After data collection begins, changing procedures might be difficult or impossible, even if better methods become obvious. A thorough plan anticipates intended uses and creates an evaluation strategy with the greatest chance of being useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate. Among the items to consider when focusing an evaluation are the following:

  • Purpose: What is the intent or motive for conducting the evaluation (i.e., to gain insight, change practice, assess effects, or affect participants)?
  • Users: Who are the specific persons that will receive evaluation findings or benefit from being part of the evaluation?
  • Uses: How will each user apply the information or experiences generated from the evaluation?
  • Questions: What questions should the evaluation answer? What boundaries will be established to create a viable focus for the evaluation? What unit of analysis is appropriate (e.g., a system of related programs, a single program, a project within a program, a subcomponent or process within a project)?
  • Methods: What procedures will provide the appropriate information to address stakeholders' questions (i.e., what research designs and data collection procedures best match the primary users, uses, and questions)? Is it possible to mix methods to overcome the limitations of any single approach?
  • Agreements: How will the evaluation plan be implemented within available resources? What roles and responsibilities have the stakeholders accepted? What safeguards are in place to ensure that standards are met, especially those for protecting human subjects?

4. Gather Credible Evidence
Persons involved in an evaluation should strive to collect information that will convey a well-rounded picture of the program and be seen as credible by the evaluation's primary users. Stakeholders should perceive information as believable and relevant for answering their questions. Such decisions depend on the evaluation questions being posed and the motives for asking them. Having credible evidence strengthens evaluation judgments and the recommendations that follow from them. Although all types of data have limitations, an evaluation's overall credibility can be improved by using multiple procedures for gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data. When stakeholders are involved in defining and gathering data that they find credible, they will be more likely to accept the evaluation's conclusions and to act on its recommendations. The following aspects of evidence gathering typically affect perceptions of credibility:

  • Indicators: How will general concepts regarding the program, its context, and its expected effects be translated into specific measures that can be interpreted? Will the chosen indicators provide systematic data that is valid and reliable for the intended uses?
  • Sources: What sources (i.e., persons, documents, observations) will be accessed to gather evidence? What will be done to integrate multiple sources, especially those that provide data in narrative form and those that are numeric?
  • Quality: Is the information trustworthy (i.e., reliable, valid, and informative for the intended uses)?
  • Quantity: What amount of information is sufficient? What level of confidence or precision is possible? Is there adequate power to detect effects? Is the respondent burden reasonable?
  • Logistics: What techniques, timing, and physical infrastructure will be used for gathering and handling evidence?

5. Justify Conclusions
Evaluation conclusions are justified when they are linked to the evidence gathered and judged against agreed-upon values or standards set by the stakeholders. Stakeholders must agree that conclusions are justified before they will use the evaluation results with confidence. Justifying conclusions on the basis of evidence includes the following five elements:

  • Standards: Which stakeholder values provide the basis for forming judgments? What type or level of performance must be reached for the program to be considered successful?
  • Analysis and synthesis: What procedures will be used to examine and summarize the evaluation's findings?
  • Interpretation: What do the findings mean (i.e., what is their practical significance)?
  • Judgment: What claims concerning the program's merit, worth, or significance are justified based on the available evidence and the selected standards?
  • Recommendations: What actions should be considered resulting from the evaluation [Note: Making recommendations is distinct from forming judgments and presumes a thorough understanding of the context in which programmatic decisions will be made.]

6. Ensure Use and Share Lessons Learned
Assuming that lessons learned in the course of an evaluation will automatically translate into informed decision-making and appropriate action would be naive. Deliberate effort is needed to ensure that the evaluation processes and findings are used and disseminated appropriately. Preparing for use involves strategic thinking and continued vigilance, both of which begin in the earliest stages of stakeholder engagement and continue throughout the evaluation process. The following five elements are critical for ensuring use:

  • Design: Is the evaluation organized from the start to achieve intended uses by primary users?
  • Preparation: Have steps been taken to rehearse eventual use of the evaluation findings? How have stakeholders been prepared to translate new knowledge into appropriate action?
  • Feedback: What communication will occur among parties to the evaluation? Is there an atmosphere of trust among stakeholders?
  • Follow-up: How will the technical and emotional needs of users be supported? What will prevent lessons learned from becoming lost or ignored in the process of making complex or politically sensitive decisions? What safeguards are in place for preventing misuse of the evaluation?
  • Dissemination: How will the procedures or the lessons learned from the evaluation be communicated to relevant audiences in a timely, unbiased, and consistent fashion? How will reports be tailored for different audiences?

To sustain means to keep in existence without diminishing or to provide sustenance and nourishment and to develop means to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of, to bring to a more advanced or effective state. Sustainable development is the process of building equitable, productive and participatory structures to increase the economic empowerment of communities and their surrounding regions. It is the ability to make development choices, which respect the relationship between the three "E's" economy, ecology, and equity

The notion of sustainable development when applied to the national level is often interpreted to mean the integration of three main pillars:

  • Economics , including macro- and micro-level economic policies, and private sector activities;
  • Social issues, including poverty alleviation and employment generation; and
  • Environmental issues, including both brown issues (for example, air and water pollution) and green issues (for example, conservation of forests, dry lands, wetlands).

The particular model that is being advocated in Kliptown is based on the following principles:

  • Participation of all stakeholders
  • Integration of environmentally sustainable socio-economic development plans and activities
  • Information sharing to replicate/adapt the experiences of the Kliptown experience
  • Monitoring and evaluation - the use of success stories to ensure that follow up activities are implemented
  • Capacity Building

This will be done through:

  • Empowerment of functional community based organisations of men and women.
  • Promotion of education through literacy classes and awareness activities.
  • Promotion of capacity building of communities to identify, plan and implement self help projects
  • Establishment of a local information system
  • Ownership of the development by the community

E. The Social Development Programmes

The implementation of this strategy is based on a number of programmes that have been developed in response to the needs of the people of Kliptown. A programme is a system of projects or services intended to meet a public need. The logic model describes the main elements of a programme and how they work together to prevent or influence behaviour in a specific population. This model is often displayed in a flow chart, map, or table to portray the sequence of steps leading to programme outcomes.

The following diagram outlines the 6 programmes as well as the list of projects or initiatives that will be implemented in connection with each programme?

E.1. The HIV/AIDS Intervention
a. Programme Goal
HIV is a virus that spreads silently before it wreaks devastation and, because it is largely spread sexually, it targets young adults just as they are coming into the prime of their productive lives. Because these young adults are also at the time of life when they are starting families, AIDS has a cross-generational impact, leaving children without parents to guard and guide them, increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection, and creating a legacy of economic and social instability. 4

The goal of the HIV/AIDS programme is to effectively and efficiently deal with HIV/ AIDS and the challenges it poses. This should be achieved through the implementation of a number of key projects that are aimed at dealing with particular challenges that the community faces in relation to HIV/AIDS.

b. Programme Objectives
There are a number of strategic objectives that need to be achieved in the implementation of this programme and these are aimed at:
  • The implementation of an effective and culturally appropriate information, education and communications (IEC) strategy (Communication for Behavioural Impact)
  • Increase access and acceptability to Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing
  • Promote increased positive behaviours to reduce STD and HIV transmission
  • Improve the care and treatment of HIV positive persons and persons living or affected with AIDS to promote a better quality of life and limit the need for hospital care
  • Capacity building of community based organisations and institutions to provide support and counselling services: In understanding the limitations that current government institutions and other organisations have in providing HIV/AIDS care and support services within Kliptown, it is critical that NGOs and CBOs and capacitated are provided with the requisite skills in order to become sustainable.
  • Community ownership of key interventions
c. Programme Outcomes
The envisaged outcomes of this programme are outlined below:
  • A decrease in HIV transmission rates
  • HIV incidence decreases
  • A decrease in HIV morbidity and mortality
  • A decrease in the impact of HIV/AIDS on affected individuals
E.2. Poverty Alleviation Intervention
a. Programme Goal
Poverty is not a static condition; individuals, households or communities may be vulnerable to poverty as a result of shocks and crises (uncontrollable events which harm livelihoods and food security) and long-term trends (such as racial and gender discrimination, environmental degradation and macroeconomic trends). Vulnerability to poverty is therefore characterised by an inability to devise an appropriate coping or management strategy in times of crisis. Poverty may also involve social exclusion in either an economic dimension (exclusion from the labour market and opportunities to earn income) or a purely social dimension (exclusion from decision-making, social services, and access to community and family support).5

The Goal of the Poverty Alleviation Programme is "To create opportunities for self and community development in order to effectively contribute towards economic development". This will be done through the implementation of specific interventions that are aimed at dealing with issues relating to income generation and economic development.

b. Programme Objectives
The broad programme objective is to alleviate poverty within the Kliptown community. This will be done through:
  • The economic development of the community
  • The formulation of strategic partnerships with organisations that are aimed at creating opportunities for access to finance and credit for SMME's
  • The creation of employment opportunities for the members of the Kliptown community, this will include the identification of alternative forms of employment
  • The provision of facilities, infrastructure and information that is aimed at increase the level of skills of the people of Kliptown
  • Provision of targeted training and development initiatives towards creating a higher level of employability of the people of Kliptown
  • The formulation of strategic partnerships that will be aimed at providing access to the members of Kliptown to education opportunities through recognised institutions of higher learning
  • The implementation of specific career development and planning initiatives
  • Focus on the development of SMME's, NGOs and CBO's as alternative forms of employment
c. Programme Outcomes
The programme is aimed at achieving the following outcomes:'
  • A reduction in the prevalence of poverty within Kliptown in the medium term and the eradication of poverty in the long term through the implementation of all interventions
  • Through the implementation of all related programmes, an increase in the economic growth within the study area
  • An increase in the levels of education attained through the development of strategic partnerships with tertiary and higher learning institutions
  • An increase in the contribution of Kliptown's economic development by the inhabitants of Kliptown through initiatives aimed at creating access to credit and finance as well as creating markets for products produced within Kliptown
  • An increase in the levels of skills attained by individuals and collectives through targeted training and skills development
  • The long term sustainability of SMME's, CBOs and NGO's within Kliptown through capacity building as well as exposure to relevant markets within Kliptown as well as nationally
  • An increase in the levels of employment, both on a short term and long term basis resulting from the availability of employment opportunities and an increase in the community's employability
E.3. The Abuse and Violence Intervention
a. Programme Goal
In understanding the broad context within which violence, abuse and crime occur, the goal of this programme is "To mitigate against violence, abuse and crime within the community (in its various forms)". There is a broad need to develop a safer community for people to live in as well as the creation of citizens that embody the broader principles of civic morality.

b. Programme Objectives
There are a number of strategic objectives that need to be achieved in the implementation of this programme and these are aimed at:
  • Addressing the needs of women and children as victims of crime and violence
  • Responding to the needs and preventing the impact of crime and violence on all victims of crime and violence
  • The development of a new approach to deal with crime i.e. the programme further advocates that crime prevention programmes should be approached from a social development perspective and should have a strong focus on children and youth and other vulnerable groups, for example, people with disabilities and older persons. Families should be provided with the necessary support and resources to assist them to meet the challenges they face. The paradigm shift is on crime as a social issue and adopting a victim centred restorative justice approach. To this effect cognisance has been taken of other programmes and the impact that they will have on crime or situations that force individuals to commit crime.
  • The programme is strongly based on building and maintaining partnerships between government and civil society, e.g. volunteers, business, Non-governmental Organisations, Faith Based Organisations, Institutions of Higher Learning, and research institutions. It is believed that these partnerships, based on a shared concern for all victims, will lead the way to co-ordination of activities on advocating and lobbying for victims related issues.
c. Programme Outcomes
The envisaged outcomes of this programme are outlined below:
  • The establishment of a victim empowerment centre as well as shelters for the abused (victims)
  • A reduction in the incidents of violence and abuse within the community
  • A reduction in the number of victims of violence and abuse within the community
  • A reduction in social crime perpetuated by members of the community
  • An increase in the levels of safety and security within Kliptown
E.4. Sports & Recreation Programme
a. Programme Goal
Sport is widely regarded as a key component of the cultural identity of both individuals and communities as a whole, with sports provision contributing to the quality of life within a local community. Whether participating, volunteering, supporting or watching sport, there is an intrinsic pleasure from sport and physical activity.

In recent years sport and physical activity has also been recognised as a powerful vehicle in promoting community development and tackling a range of social issues. Through carefully targeted work, sport development programmes can promote social inclusion amongst disaffected groups, promoting healthy lifestyles amongst the physically inactive and providing diversionary activities to help reduce youth crime and vandalism.

In understanding the broader social development challenges that exist within the Kliptown community, the goal of this programme is To effectively utilise sports, recreation, arts and culture to deal with social development challenges. This programme compliments other programmes that will be implemented within Kliptown.

b. Programme Objectives
There are a number of strategic objectives that need to be achieved in the implementation of this programme and these are aimed at:
  • Creating access to facilities and development related initiatives
  • Creating sustainable sports, recreation, arts & culture organisations
  • To create and enhance sporting opportunities that lead to higher participation rates in sport, particularly amongst young people and under represented target groups. These target groups include girls and women, disabled people and the elderly.
  • Raise the profile of sport and physical activity to encourage healthier lifestyles
  • Demonstrate the benefit of sport in contributing to improving the quality of life
  • Address the sporting needs of the local community
  • Help to increase participation in community based sport and physical activity
  • Forge links with other strategic agencies and their agendas
c. Programme Outcomes
The envisaged outcomes of this programme are outlined below:
  • An increase in the levels of access to sports and recreation facilities
  • An increase in the levels of access to sports development related services
  • An increase in the number of sustainable sporting clubs etc
E.5. The Social Services Programme
a. Programme Goal
In understanding the broader social development challenges that exist within the Kliptown community, the goal of this programme is to ensure that the community has access to a comprehensive package of social services. This programme compliments other programmes that will be implemented within Kliptown.

b. Programme Objectives
There are a number of strategic objectives that need to be achieved in the implementation of this programme and these are aimed at:
  • Creating an enabling environment for vulnerable groups to access grants e.g. provision of assistance to get identification documents
  • Creating access to social service grants for vulnerable groups within the community
  • Ensuring access to social services through the provision of infrastructure
  • The provision of social services through the implementation of strategic partnerships
  • Develop alternative strategies for the provision of social services
c. Programme Outcomes
The envisaged outcomes of this programme are outlined below:
  • An increase in the number of community members (Vulnerable) with access to the essential basket of social services
  • An increase in the number of community members with access to social security grants
E.6. The Health Services Programme
a. Programme Goal
In understanding the broader social development challenges that exist within the Kliptown community, the goal of this programme is to ensure that the community has direct access to a comprehensive package of health care services. This programme compliments other programmes that will be implemented within Kliptown.

b. Programme Objectives
There are a number of strategic objectives that need to be achieved in the implementation of this programme and these are aimed at:
  • Ensuring that the community has access to the comprehensive package of primary health care
  • Ensuring access to health services through the provision of infrastructure - Clinic
  • The provision of health education services
  • Develop alternative strategies for the provision of health services
c. Programme Outcomes
The envisaged outcomes of this programme are outlined below:
  • A decrease in the impact of common diseases on the community
  • An increase in the level of access to health services

F. The Programme Implementation Model

F.1. The Mobilisation Phase - Laying the Foundation
This phase will involve the establishment of mechanisms and implementation of specific interventions that will ensure the smooth implementation of programmes and projects as well as to ensure that there is buy in from the community. These are outlined below:
  • Refinement of Business Plans
  • Finalisation of the costing implications
  • Review project focus areas
  • Finalisation and approval of the implementation strategy
  • Re define project outputs and programme outcomes where relevant
  • Enhancement of interventions to achieve societal change
  • Focus On Quick Wins
  • Identification of short term projects that can be implemented (These may form part of the programme list or can be other initiatives at the community level)
  • Development of project implementation teams
  • Development of project plans
  • Ongoing skills development
  • Quick wins implementation
  • Project management
  • Quick wins monitoring and evaluation
  • Agreeing on Institutional Arrangements
  • Development of governance model (Medium term and long term)
  • Development of an Operationalisation plan
  • Determine capacity requirements for effective governance
  • Capacity development and skills transfer
  • Implementation of medium term model with a view to a implementing a longer term model
  • Develop transition strategy
  • Who owns the strategy?
  • Community Readiness to ensure buy in
  • Launch the post planning phase (Thematic)
  • Social marketing and promotion interventions (Use billboards)
  • Other targeted social change initiatives (The turning point)
  • Training and capacity building (Specific focus on community leaders)
  • Road shows and workshops (Educating people on what is expected of them)
  • Create expectations (Key note addresses)
  • Stakeholder Integration
  • Consolidate the list of identified stakeholders
  • Refine stakeholder engagement strategies
  • Formulation of strategic partnerships
  • Define strategic partnership frameworks (SLA's)
  • Implementation strategic partnership frameworks
  • Ongoing capacity building (Targeted stakeholders)
  • Monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the partnership frameworks
  • Establish Resource Arrangements
  • Consolidate current sources of funds and other resources
  • Determine resource gap
  • Develop resourcing strategy (e.g. Use of strategic partnerships
  • Implementation of resourcing strategy

F.2. Implementation Phase - Community Upliftment
The following are some of the key issues that will also have to be considered in the implementation phase of the programmes. These activities will be implemented as part of the overall pre implementation phases for each and every one of the specific projects as outlined per programme. These are as follows:

  • Development of project plans
  • Refinement of project objectives and outcomes
  • Development of operational plans
  • Define project tasks and responsibilities
  • Finalise project resource plans
  • Agree on project milestones
  • Identify standards of project delivery and outputs
  • Service Provider Selection
  • Drafting of terms of reference
  • Compilation of service provider specifications
  • Tendering procedures
  • Service provider evaluations
  • Service provider selection
  • Contractual agreements
  • Project Launch
  • Organisation of project launch
  • Logistical and administration arrangements
  • Agree on roles and responsibilities (Including community roles)
  • Identify project risks and mitigation strategies
  • Finalisation of project implementation plans

F.3. Community Governance
This model focuses on JDA's role in strengthening communities broadly. It is citizen based in approach: concerned with how people participate in, contribute to and feel about their city and communities. Such participation will span the continuum from policy making and planning through to implementation; it may also be associated with delivery of services, building facilities, changing behaviour, accessing resources, improving the environment, advocating for resources and many other activities. An effective governance model should:

  • Encourage sustainable development
  • Take risks
  • Acknowledge unplanned success
  • Seek to develop trust
  • Allow time to succeed
  • Be Inclusive

The model should be based on the following values:

  • Citizen participation
  • Focus on the family
  • People as the key resource
  • Management of diversity
  • Ensuring that equity takes place
  • Voluntary involvement and contribution
  • Relationship building and management

The rationale behind the model is that community well being is a product of collaboration and involvement.

Community Leadership
Community Leadership reflects the concept of people and groups working together to achieve common goals and visions. Inherent in this concept is the idea that leadership may come from many sources: individuals, community groups, churches, agencies, governments, and business. Also implicit in the concept is the idea that different people, groups and sectors will have different styles of leadership and preferred ways of participating: e.g. formal or informal; verbal or written; as individuals or through spokespeople (such as elders, church leaders).

This concept necessitates an acknowledgment of the differences that exist within the community whilst recognising that despite these differences, people can find commonalities and shared goals to work towards. So, for example, people may be keen to work together to ensure community safety regardless of their ethnic backgrounds or religious beliefs.

Community Empowerment
Empowered communities are ones, which either have or are able to access resources. Resources are needed to meet a variety of needs falling along a continuum from basic needs (e.g. food, shelter, income) to higher level needs (e.g. social interaction, support, self-development). The link between social and economic capital is, therefore, made particularly apparent here.

To empower a community it is often necessary to devolve decision-making. Empowered communities, therefore, are also ones where those people, organisations and agencies who have power are willing to share that power and to devolve decision making down to the lowest, most appropriate, level. Such devolution is not about abdicating responsibilities. The devolution of decision-making should only occur when the group, organisation or community has the necessary skills, knowledge, support and infrastructure needed to act. Without these pre requisites being met, devolution of responsibilities will only set communities up to fail. However, the concept need not be thought of in absolutes: the notion of partnership, for example, has particular relevance within this context.

Community Ownership
This component of the model encompasses the way in which people are connected to their communities so they feel they belong and feel they want to look after their communities.
The sense of caring about ones community includes caring for both its physical and social aspects. In terms of the social aspects the idea extends to taking ownership not only of what is positive but also of the community's problems. The willingness to 'own' the community's problems also signals a willingness or interest in becoming part of the solution. Community ownership, therefore, captures the notion of community sustainability: protecting the community for current and future generations.

F.4. Medium Term Institutional Arrangements
The short term institutional arrangements have been developed on a detailed understanding that structures that represent the community from a social development point of view already exist within the community i.e. The Greater Kliptown Development Forum, The youth forum, The forum for the aged and religious groups, traditional and cultural leaders as well as other community based organisations and NGOs. The challenge was to develop institutional structures that will not challenge the existing structures but rather augment the functionality and acceptability of these structures within the community itself. The other issue that was considered was the fact that there is a need to develop simplistic but practical institutions that will encourage community participation more specifically and community empowerment in general.

Social change principles encourage the utilisation of members of the community in the design of key aspects of projects as well as implementation of those projects in order to ensure sustainability as well as societal growth. The implementation of this programme broadly and the projects more specifically is strongly based on principles of community participation as well as community participation without necessarily ignoring those institutions that have the capacity and the mandate to provide specific aspects of social development.

The broad principles of this structure are then outlined below:

  • Due to the fact that most of these projects are not revenue generating except where community members or community based organisations are implementing specific aspects of the programmes, it was critical that the model utilised should be based on the creation of an organisation that will not necessarily be aimed at generating profit.
  • It was also critical to consider that the social development programmes and projects there of are primarily owned by the community and that the role of the Johannesburg Development Agency is that of a facilitator for the development to take place, it was critical that key stakeholders are involved in the overseeing the implementation of the programmes e.g. the City of Johannesburg i.e. Administrative regions 6 & 10, The City Departments as well as the office of the Chief Operating Officer of the city amongst others.
  • It was also critical to bear in mind the fact that as facilitators of this development, the JDA will appoint a medium term programme manager who will be responsible for the primary implementation of projects within Kliptown.
  • The JDA also appointed community participation consultants in order to ensure that community consultation takes place in relation to key aspects of the overall development. They would play a key role in assisting the implementation of key projects and would facilitate interaction with the community as well as ensuring that the relevant community members involved in project implementation receive the requisite training and broad capacity building
  • There is a need to allow for experts in the field of social development to contribute towards effective delivery on projects through the provision of expert advice on relevant issues. These would be expected to play a key role on a voluntary basis and this should managed in an efficient manner
  • It was critical to develop structures that will be involved in the implementation of programmes on a medium term basis. The time frame is not expected to be in place for more than 12 months. It is expected that the permanent institutional arrangements will be finalised before the 12-month period has expired.

a) The Social Development Steering Committee
The social development steering committee will be made up of the following parties:

  • The Greater Kliptown Development Forum (The option is either select members or the EXCO members will be part of the committee), as primary owners of the programmes
  • Traditional and Other Community Leaders as identified through community consultation processes
  • The Johannesburg Development Agency as facilitator of the development
  • The City of Johannesburg (The Office of the Chief Operating Officer, Regional Directors - Regions 6 & 10 as well as relevant Line Department Heads), as co-owners of the strategy
  • The programme management consultants as an ordinary member

The functions of the social development programme steering committee will include the following amongst others:

  • Providing input on strategic issues and review of the progress with respect to overall development implementation when appropriate, this will include periodic reviews of the overall development and making recommendations on programmes redesign
  • Development of overall recommendations in relation to dealing with specific challenges and risks as identified before and during overall development implementation
  • Act as the custodians of the social development strategy and programmes thereof
  • Dealing with escalated disputes between parties with respect to implementation of programmes
  • Ensure that broad community participation and consultation principles are adhered to with respect to programme implementation through interaction with the relevant community participation body
  • Evaluation and selection of service providers to implement programmes or specific aspects thereof

The full terms of reference for the committee will be developed on approval of the interim structure.

b) The Programme Steering Committee
The programme steering committee will be made up of the following:

  • Members of the Greater Kliptown Development Forums' sub forums
  • Elected traditional and other community leaders
  • The programme manager as appointed by the JDA
  • The City of Johannesburg (Selected members from the Regions, the City's departments)
  • Voluntary subject matter experts
  • Community members (Other than those in leadership positions)
  • Other members as may be determined in due course

The role of the programme steering committee will be to:

  • Providing input on strategic issues and review of the progress with respect to programme related implementation when appropriate
  • Development of overall recommendations in relation to dealing with specific challenges and risks as identified before and during programme implementation
  • Dealing with disputes and conflicts between parties with respect to implementation of programmes
  • Ensure that broad community participation and consultation principles are adhered to with respect to programme implementation through interaction with the relevant community participation body
  • Reporting to the social development steering committee
  • To make programme related decisions in connection with general management issues e.g. finance, resourcing etc.

c) Programme Management
In the short term the programme management functions will be the responsibility of the programme manager as will be appointed by the JDA. Their role will be:

  • Development of detailed project plans for each of the focus areas - this will include the refinement of the conceptualization, the costing refinement and the terms of reference that will be used to procure the services of the different providers.
  • Assisting with the selection of the service providers that would be bidding for projects within the respective focus areas
  • Assisting with the launch of the new projects within the Kliptown community
  • Providing technical advice and troubleshooting services during project implementation
  • Serving as an early warning system to enable additional assistance to projects experiencing severe difficulties
  • Monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the projects
  • Analyzing the implementation of all projects in the programme and identifying trends that permit lessons to be learned
  • Serving as the intellectual partner to the JDA.
  • Facilitating the transfer of skills during the implementation of the programmes. The idea is that specific community members or organisation should be selected to "shadow" the programme management team for eventual management as soon as the permanent institutional arrangements are in place
  • Facilitating capacity building and training as a whole
  • To facilitate integration and interaction with the community participation team with regards to programme implementation. To this effect the programme management team will be expected to facilitate the involvement of the community with respect to specific initiatives that are aimed at achieving community ownership of programmes as part of the overall social marketing initiatives
The Programme Management Model
d) Functional Teams
Four functional teams will then have to be formulated in order to ensure that there is skills transfer as well as continuity beyond the lifeline of the temporary structures. These would be made up of community members as well as the programme management component. It is envisaged that key aspects of the processes that will be managed by the functional teams will be the responsibility of selected service providers as well as of the programme management team, it is essential to understand that there will be a need to develop broad capability within the community to deliver services in relation to these functional areas. The functional areas are outlined below:
  • Project management
  • Capacity building in the form of training, accreditation of service providers, skills transfer as well as broad skills development
  • Monitoring and evaluation of projects and programmes specifically related to the collection of data on an ongoing basis, development of reports as well as communicating with key stakeholders
  • Resourcing and funding specifically linked to effective resource management as well as expertise to access funding and other resources for programme implementation
  • Focus on targeted interventions will deal with issues that are related to achieving specific targets with regards to the employment or utilisation of local labour or organisations with respect to implementation of projects within the scope. The labour sub forum can make recommendations with regards to who could be selected to this team

It should be understood though that these functional teams will be supported and assisted by the programme management component thereof with respect to capacity as well as developing expertise in these areas. Targeted training initiatives will need to be carried out in order to ensure that these teams are able to deliver on the programmes in the medium term

e) Other Issues
The following are some of the key issues that need to be considered:

  • Selection of service providers: This will be done in line with the JDA's procurement policies which are in line with the Preferential Procurement Framework as developed by national government. Wherever possible these should be flexible to allow for the achievement of specific objectives as part of the overall growth and development of the Kliptown community e.g. the involvement of the development steering committee or its members thereof in the selection of service providers
  • Programme management systems: The JDA's programme management systems should be utilised in the management of programmes as part if the interim measures
  • As part of the development of the permanent institutional structures, it will be important to consider incentives or the development of a remuneration strategy e.g. allowances with respect to individuals that are involved in the delivery of the programmes from a community point of view especially in relation to the functional teams. Consideration should be given to the involvement of youth of community-based organisations in order to ensure that there is sustainability in terms of the functionality of these teams

F.5. Post Development institutional Arrangements
The post development institutional arrangements have not been finalised as of yet but the medium term institutional arrangements should be considered in developing the institution.

G. Conclusion

This strategy encompasses the broad challenges that the Kliptown community faces from a social development perspective. This forms one part of the strategic interventions that have been initiated in order to ensure that there is regeneration and growth of the community. It is critical that this strategy must not be read in isolation as it may inform other initiatives that are being implemented or may be informed by other initiatives that are being implemented. Social change will only take place if there is broad acknowledgement that challenges do exist and that the community has a responsibility to turn the situation around. This is meant to be the first in making things easy for the people of Kliptown and turning the tide.